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  • 關于我們

    什么是心理學?

    “什么是心理學”?

    大眾媒體傳播了不少錯誤觀念、心理學專業所涉及的職業也非常廣泛,這讓我們更搞不清楚什么是心理學。

    心理學是在應用和學術領域研究人的心理和行為的科學。心理學的研究力圖理解和說明思維、情感和行為。應用心理學包括心理健康治療、績效增強、自我協助、人類工程學以及其他許多關于健康和日常生活的領域。

    早期的心理學

    心理學從哲學和生理學演變而來。關于這兩個主題的討論可以追溯到早期的希臘思想家,包括亞里士多德和蘇格拉底。心理學Psychology這個單詞就是源自希臘語的payche,意思是“靈魂”或者“精神”。

    獨立的科學分支

    馮特于1879年在德國的萊比錫大學建立了第一個心理學實驗室,標志著心理學成為獨立的學科。 馮特的重心放在描述心理的結構成分。這種觀點在分析感覺和情感時在十分依賴于一種非常主觀的研究方法——內省法。馮特認為經過正確訓練的個體能夠精確地辨認伴隨著感覺、感情和思維的心理過程。

    思想派別

    在心理學的歷史里,為了解釋人的心理和行為,形成了許多不同的派別。這些派別都曾經主導一時。雖然他們常常被看作是相互對立的勢力,但是每個學派都有助于我們對心理學的理解。下面就是一些主要的心理學流派:
    構造主義
    機能主義
    心理分析學派
    行為主義
    人本主義
    認知學派


    當今的心理學

    如今,心理學家傾向于采用多種客觀的、科學的研究方法去理解,解釋和預測人的行為。心理學研究已經高度結構化,從假設開始,然后主要通過實驗驗證。心理學包含兩個主要領域:學術領域和應用領域。學術領域集中研究不同的心理學分支,包括人格心理學、社會心理學、發展心理學等。這方面的心理學家進行基礎研究,解釋理論方面的問題,而其他的研究者進行應用研究,解決人們遇到的日常問題。 應用心理學重點在使用心理學原理來解決遇到的問題。比如法律心理學、人類工程學和工業心理學。心理治療師會幫助人們戰勝心理的、行為的和情感方面的問題。

    心理學的研究方法

    自從心理學從哲學分離以后,心理學家就開始使用更科學的方法研究人的行為。當代的研究者們會同時使用多種科學的技術研究和解釋、預測人的行為,比如實驗研究、相關研究、追蹤研究等。

    心理學研究領域

    心理學研究內容廣泛,出現了許多不同的子分支。下面是一些主要的分支:
    變態心理學研究異常行為和精神病理學。這個特殊的分支集中在對不同的心理失常的研究和治療,常常與心理療法和臨床心理學有關聯。
    生物心理學研究生理過程是怎樣影響心理和行為的。這個領域和神經系統科學有關,常常使用MRI(核磁共振成像)、PET(正電子發射斷層掃描)去觀察大腦的損傷和異常。
    臨床心理學集中于心理測量、診斷和對心理異常的治療。
    認知心理學研究人的思維過程和認知。認知心理學家研究注意、記憶、知覺、決策、問題解決和語言獲得等內容。
    比較心理學研究動物的心理,從而使我們能更深入地理解人的心理過程。
    發展心理學研究人一生的成長和發展。發展心理學的理論常常集中在認知能力、道德、社會功能、同一性等問題上。
    法律心理學把心理學的研究和原則運用在法律和司法公司系統上。
    工業心理學使用心理學原則提高工作績效,選擇工作人員、改進產品設計和提高易用性。
    人格心理學研究組成每個人不同個性的元素。。知名的人格理論包括弗洛伊德的心理結構理論和大五人格理論。
    學校心理學是在教育系統里幫助孩子們解決遇到的情感、社會和學業方面的問題。
    社會心理學使用科學的方法研究社會影響、社會認知和社會互動。社會心理學研究的內容包括團體行為、社會知覺、領導能力、非言語行為、從眾、侵犯和偏見。

    http://article.yeeyan.org/view/165977/246556
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