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    2012年度十大心理學發現
    2013-09-06 13:45:35   來源:轉貼   評論:0 點擊:

    玩游戲好不好?該不該出國?“心理距離”能變出什么魔法?廣告真能誘導消費?花錢可以讓人快樂嗎?大腦為什么關鍵時刻總“卡殼”?心理能力能改變嗎?心理感受為何百人百樣?大腦也愛“偷懶”亂貼標簽嗎?左右大腦能說“悄悄話”嗎?
      美國《今日心理學》雜志評出了2012“年度十大心理學發現”。這其中有和人們生活息息相關的內容,也有預示了未來研究發展趨勢的重大發現。讓我們一起來看看即將過去的這一年有哪些值得關注的心理學研究吧!

      1.電腦是把“雙刃劍”

      玩游戲好不好?心理學家爭論不休。美國愛荷華州立大學特聘教授克雷格·安德森等人指出,有“打打殺殺”等暴力情節的游戲會讓人滋生暴力傾向。2010年4月的另一項研究發現,玩PSP游戲[敏感詞]機的孩子,學習成績普遍下降。但是,還有科學家發現,打游戲尤其是動作類游戲可以讓人反應更靈活,是很好的反應能力和準確性訓練方法;《人格與社會心理學》雜志還有一篇文章指出,玩游戲會讓人心腸好、更熱心。

      2.出國激發創造力

      該不該出國?心理學研究告訴你。美國馬里蘭大學帕克分校心理學教授米歇爾·蓋爾范德等人發現,與其他文化的人群進行接觸,會提高人們的談判能力。歐洲工商管理學院的3位心理學家同樣發現,旅居國外,學習并吸收外國文化,能幫你打開一種全新的思路,從而增強創造力。他們提出了“文商”(文化商數CQ)這一概念,并發現CQ在國際談判中起著非常重要的作用。

      3.沖動讓人不理智

      我們常說“距離產生美”,“距離”到底能變出什么魔法呢?2010年7月,美國紐約大學心理學教授阿加姆·特羅普和美國特拉維夫大學社會心理學副教授尼拉·利伯曼提出“建構水平理論”的說法。他們指出,制造一點“心理距離”,比如想買手機時別馬上掏錢,過幾天再決定,會讓你更抽象地思考,抓住如“通話質量好不好”這種主要矛盾,而避開如“鈴聲好不好聽、顏色好不好看”等細節問題和感性的干擾,幫助我們作出更明智的選擇。

      4.廣告可以誘導人們的選擇

      如今的世界,無論看電視、看報紙、聽廣播、上網……廣告簡直無孔不入。你可能覺得廣告只能宣傳商品,買東西時,大腦自會有個“管家”讓自己理性消費。而加拿大瑞爾森大學經濟學副教授梅勒妮·鄧普斯等人發表在《消費者研究》上的文章表明,給某一商品“戴高帽”,會激活大腦愉快的情感反射,讓你不由自主地對它產生好印象,而忽略其真實的質量。即使你知道它品質一般時,也會屈服于廣告的效應,這一過程被稱做“情感調節”,也叫“移情”。

      5.花錢過程提升幸福度

      美國蓋洛普公司公布了一項大規模調查結果,這項涉及132個國家13.6萬人的研究發現,金錢能改善人們的生活質量和滿意度,但對日常情緒的影響極小,這種聯系與性別、年齡和社會階層等因素無關。隨后,英國沃里克大學和卡迪夫大學的研究人員指出,幸福感并不在于金錢的絕對值,而是與身邊的人相比,是不是比他們掙得要多。此外,美國康奈爾大學的心理學家崔維斯·卡特和湯姆·基洛維奇發現,與花錢買到的東西相比,花錢的經歷其實更讓人開心。而哥倫比亞大學的研究人員則發現,花錢買禮物送人或者捐款做善事,不僅能讓人更快樂,還能提高身體免疫力。

      6.壓力讓大腦變得遲鈍

      你有沒有過這樣的經歷?明明演講稿已經背得滾瓜爛熟,上了臺卻卡住了。越到關鍵時刻,越容易出“狀況”,真的是太緊張了嗎?美國芝加哥大學心理學教授西漢·貝洛克在《窒息》一書中指出,大腦“卡殼”的秘密在于“內存”不夠!緊張、焦慮等情緒會存在“工作記憶”這個“內存”里,太緊張了,不良情緒把“內存”裝滿,原本儲存在大腦里的其他資源,自然沒有空間提取出來了。

      7.自信可以助人成功

      美國斯坦福大學心理學教授卡羅爾·德維克等人發表在《心理科學》上的一項研究指出,人們對自己的心理能力抱有不同的信念,有人認為心理能力是一種天賦,無法改變,有的人則堅信心理能力是靠經驗獲取的,并隨時間而變化。堅信自己擁有強大的心理潛能,并勇于挖掘,會激發頑強的意志力,使精力更旺盛,心里更有“韌勁”,從而可以更冷靜地面對偏見、傷害和挫折,最終一步步贏得成功。

      8.“貼標簽”影響判斷力

      美國里海大學心理學副教授阿曼達·布蘭登和密歇根大學心理學博士蘇珊·吉爾曼發表在《認知科學》上的一項研究發現,人的大腦也有這個毛病。一旦我們把一個事物歸到某一類,即使沒有親眼見到,也會把這一類物品的特點強加到它身上,比如“天下烏鴉一般黑”“獨生子女問題多”“有錢人不靠譜”。研究者稱之為“刻板印象”,這說明我們的大腦也會“偷懶”,想找捷徑去認識世界,而“分類”是最便捷的判斷方法。殊不知,生活中很多偏見和歧視正是由于輕易“貼標簽”造成的。

      9.偶然并非全是無根之源

      由于心理感受百人百樣,很多心理現象具有強烈的不確定性,無法像數學題那樣得出“一加一等于二”的結果,這一難題困擾心理學家多年。2010年12月,腦科學研究專家、美國印第安納大學心理學教授喬納·萊勒對心理學研究的統計方法進行了改良,他將“貝葉斯統計”的手段引入心理學,這一“革命性”的成果發表在《認知科學》雜志上。

      10.左右大腦能對話

      2010年開始,“核磁熱”橫掃世界,功能核磁共振成像(簡稱fMRI)讓人在沒有創傷和痛苦的情況下,看到大腦的活動。以前,科學家致力于研究大腦思考時的活動狀態。新研究發現,大腦“休息”時也不平靜,某些區域會出現同步的活動趨勢,它們之間像說“悄悄話”一樣,有重要的聯絡,被稱為“功能連接”。


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