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    為什么當你不努力去思考的時候好點子卻出現了
    2012-06-07 15:13:10   來源:   評論:0 點擊:

    歷史記載了好多靈感頓悟的時刻:科學家當中,從阿基米德到艾薩克·牛頓和阿爾伯特·愛因斯坦,據說都有過在想其它事情的時候靈感突然閃現的經歷。而這心理現象背后的運行機制到現在還不清晰。現在有個研究表明只...

    歷史記載了好多靈感頓悟的時刻:科學家當中,從阿基米德到艾薩克·牛頓和阿爾伯特·愛因斯坦,據說都有過在想其它事情的時候靈感突然閃現的經歷。而這心理現象背后的運行機制到現在還不清晰。現在有個研究表明只是純粹地休息一陣子帶不來靈感——相反地,創造力是由允許心靈漫游的任務培養出來的。

     

    該現象是由本杰明·貝爾德和喬納森·斯庫勒引導的團隊發現的。本杰明·貝爾德和喬納森·斯庫勒是圣巴巴拉市加利福尼亞大學的心理學家。研究人員給145個本科生布置了兩個“非常規用途”的任務:給他們兩分鐘的時間列舉出我們日常接觸到的物體,比如牙簽、衣架、磚頭等的盡可能多的用途。

     

    兩分鐘過后,參與者們被給予12分鐘的休息。在他們休息的同時,要么承擔一個需要他們全身貫注的要求很高的記憶活動,要么沉浸于一項已知會引發思緒游離的要求不高的測試反映時間的活動。第四小組的學生沒有休息。所有的參與者們后來都被給予4個“非常規用途”的任務,其中包括兩個他們之前有完成過的任務。

     

    那些有做過要求不高的活動的學生在第二次嘗試他們重復做過的任務時平均表現比之前好41%。相反地,其它3個小組的學生則沒有進步。這個實驗將被簡短地發布于《心理科學》上。

     

    “傳統的研究發現快速眼動睡眠授予創造性的洞察力。而允許注意力漫游也能激發創造力十分神奇。我想他們意識到了這兒非常有有趣的東西。” 薩拉·梅得尼克,一個加州大學河濱分校的心理學教授如是說。

     

    “這項研究真的像在文獻中捅了一個洞。”約翰·庫尼奧斯也持贊同觀點。約翰·庫尼奧斯是坐落在賓夕法尼亞州費城的德雷塞爾大學的一個心理學家。

     

    執行了要求不高的任務的參與者們在第二輪的“非常規用途”任務中對于那些他們也是第一次接觸的題目的表現并沒有比其他組做得更好。“這暗示著思緒游離只對解決那些之前有在腦海里考慮過的問題有幫助。它似乎并沒有能夠引發創造性的問題解決能力的總體提升。” 貝爾德說。

     

    開小差的上部

    貝爾德的實驗不僅揭露了純粹的休息并不能激發創造性思維,而且暗中揭開了一個困擾心理學家們的大謎團:為什么我們開小差?

     

    從進化的角度講,思緒游離似乎完全是起反作用的,而且被看成是不正常的,因為它在體育活動中讓人表現欠佳。但是,貝爾德的實驗告訴我們,當人腦在考慮復雜問題的時候,允許它進入這樣的一種狀態可以帶來真正的效益。當生存取決于創造性的解決方案的時候,開小差可能對人類有幫助。

    http://article.yeeyan.org/view/333256/288914

    相關熱詞搜索:靈感 創造性思維

    上一篇:父親和孩子重塑彼此的神經細胞
    下一篇:PNAS:研究稱人腦內部有“測謊儀” 懷疑他人時啟動

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