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    Int. J Obes.:偶爾禁食或可預防癡呆和癌癥
    2012-06-07 15:41:49   來源:生物谷   評論:0 點擊:

    在不太遙遠的將來,家庭醫生可能建議你每周禁食兩天,以預防大腦因衰老萎縮,降低心臟病、糖尿病甚至于癌癥患病風險。過去,禁食是一種常見的治療方式,根據新研究發現,我們應該回歸這種傳統療法,因為禁食似乎能夠觸發一系列有益身體健康的激素和代謝變化。

    專家們表示大幅減少食物攝入量能夠觸發大腦內的保護性過程

    能夠保護大腦

    研究人員很久以前就發現,在長時間內減少動物的卡路里攝入量能夠讓它們的壽命延長50%。由于很少有人愿意長時間餓肚子,因此很難證明這種方式能否也讓人類受益。不過,越來越多的證據顯示偶爾禁食——具有更大的可操作性——同樣能夠讓身體受益。這種禁食是指將每天的熱量攝入量控制在500到800卡之間。通常情況下,女性每天的熱量攝入量為2000卡,男性為2500卡。

    研究發現禁食似乎能夠降低生長因子(一種與癌癥和糖尿病有關的激素)水平,同時減少血液中的有害LDL膽固醇和甘油三酸酯。此外,與疾病有關的破壞性分子自由基也會得到抑制,炎癥也能得到緩解,甚至能夠保護大腦。美國國立衰老研究所的神經系統科學部門負責人馬克-馬特森教授表示:“突然大幅減少食物攝入量——至少減少一半——能夠觸發大腦內的保護性過程。大腦從中獲得的益處與體育鍛煉不相上下。這能夠保護大腦免遭阿爾茨海默氏癥和帕金森氏癥等退化性疾病侵襲。”

    馬特森是研究禁食的先驅者之一,幾年前,他取得一項研究突破,發現如果每隔一天減少老鼠的熱量攝入量,老鼠幾乎能夠獲得與完全禁食相同的所有益處。此外,一直保持低熱量攝入飲食習慣的老鼠也能獲得相同的益處。如果人類減少熱量攝入量,哪怕不是每天禁食,只是偶爾禁食,也能從中受益。很多實驗已經證明了這一點。

    可逆轉糖尿病

    在一項研究中,一組肥胖癥和超重女性每天攝入1500卡熱量,另一組每周有兩天只攝入500卡熱量,其他天攝入2000卡熱量。兩組女性在研究過程中都遵照健康的地中海飲食結構。研究領導人、英國曼徹斯特大學營養學家米歇爾-哈維博士表示:“我們發現兩組女性差不多減掉了相同的體重,可提高癌癥風險的生物標記水平下降程度也不相上下。我們的目的是確定哪一種方式更有效。我們發現禁食組女性對胰島素敏感性的改善程度更高。”對胰島素的敏感性提高能夠更好地控制血糖水平。研究發現刊登在2011年的《國際肥胖癥雜志》上。

    2011年,英國紐卡斯爾大學的研究人員報告稱,通過在8周內讓一些超重人群的熱量攝入量控制在800卡,他們成功“逆轉”了這些超重人群的糖尿病。研究人員指出,每隔一天減少熱量攝入不僅是身體能夠承受的,同時也能有效控制糖尿病患者的血糖水平。

    人體測試即將開始

    目前,馬特森教授正對不同程度的禁食所能給大腦細胞帶來的益處進行研究。根據一篇研究論文,限制熱量攝入能夠防止大腦細胞遭到破壞,同時提高它們應對壓力的能力。研究論文將于3月刊登在著名科學雜志《自然-神經科學》上。馬特森表示:“造成這種積極影響的部分原因在于,減少熱量攝入能夠刺激胃饑餓素、瘦素等食欲激素。如果你不是超重人群,這些激素能夠刺激新的大腦細胞生長,尤其是在海馬狀突起。”海馬狀突起與儲存記憶有關。

    如果體重開始增加,胃饑餓素水平下降,大腦細胞的更新也趨于緩慢。馬特森說:“這種影響在40和50多歲的人身上尤為明顯,具體原因仍是一個未知數。在這兩個年齡段出現肥胖預示著日后會出現認知問題。”好消息是,這種腦細胞受損能夠通過每周禁食兩天得到逆轉,雖然馬特森只在老鼠身上發現這種效果。據悉,人體測試將在不久后進行。我們有理由相信禁食能夠對人體產生同樣效果。

    堅持很重要

    根據馬特森幾年前進行的一項小規模研究,每隔一天禁食能夠對哮喘病患者產生驚人的積極影響。他說:“8周后,研究參與者的體重減少8%,炎癥也得到大幅緩解。測試結果表明炎癥標志物水平降低了90%。隨著炎癥大幅緩解,他們的呼吸變得更容易。”但馬特森同時也警告稱,患者必須堅持這種飲食習慣,因為癥狀在停止禁食后兩周便卷土重來。

    并非所有人都能堅持做到偶爾禁食。在哈維最近對超重女性進行的研究中,非禁食組(每天攝入1500卡)中愿意堅持的人數超過每周禁食兩天的女性。她說:“禁食并不適合所有人。在一些人看來,每周兩天內減少3000到4000卡熱量攝入量而后在余下幾天保持正常的攝入量要比每天堅持較低的熱量攝入量更具有吸引力,但在其他人眼里,這卻是他們無法接受的。根據我的經驗,男性似乎更能適應這種飲食習慣。”

    馬特森教授認為禁食能夠提高我們的健康狀況。他說:“研究顯示,如果能夠在成年后保持健康的飲食習慣和生活方式,絕大多數人都能很好地預防大腦老化。”然而,由于高熱量的飲食習慣以及缺乏鍛煉,阿爾茨海默氏癥等大腦疾病正呈增多趨勢。

    需征詢醫生建議

     

    英國醫學研究理事會飲食與健康部門負責人蘇珊-杰布博士表示,很多人能做的最健康的事情就是減肥。“我完全相信這種方式能夠發揮作用。”不過,禁食是否可作為一種治療方式,治療心臟病或者癡呆風險提高的人群,還不能現在下結論。杰布說:“我們需要對更多人進行更多更長時間的測試,了解禁食可能產生的所有影響。”

    發現禁食的健康功效外,現在的馬特森堅持每天減少熱量攝入量。他說:“我每天的熱量攝入量控制在1800卡左右,并不極端。一周內,我不吃任何早餐或者午餐,但晚餐非常豐盛。我知道不能將這種飲食習慣推薦給絕大多數人,但它對我非常有效。”然而,杰布卻對禁食持反對態度。她說:“我們并不清楚禁食隨著時間推移將對新陳代謝產生何種影響。如果禁食一兩天,人們可能認為他們可以在不禁食的時候暴飲暴食。”

    英國飲食協會警告稱,經常禁食可提高骨質疏松癥和不育風險。目前,很多科學家仍不清楚禁食可能產生哪些負面影響。如果所能帶來的益處與研究發現的一樣,很多人可能愿意選擇“餓肚子”。但專家們表示,在決定禁食前最好征詢醫生的意見。

    http://www.bioon.com/biology/neuroscience/518898.shtml

    相關熱詞搜索:禁食 癡呆 健康

    上一篇:PNAS:說兩種語言或可引起大腦變化
    下一篇:研究稱心理壓力更多地取決于基因而非生活環境

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